Information Systems homework help

Information Systems homework help. Table of Contents Situational awareness in modern EOC 2 Emergency operation center 2 Situational awareness 2 Situational awareness in EOC 3 Implementation of situational awareness in EOC 4 Elements of proactive situational awareness 5 All-Hazards 6 Approach to emergency preparedness by all-hazard 8 Equipment, tools, and data that is required for situational awareness 10 Online situational awareness tools and data collection 11 Interra 11 Web EOC 11 Cal EOC 12 Cal COP 12 EMOPS 12 Homeland Security Information Network 12 Equipment and technique for situational awareness 12 The Internet of Things 13 Edge computing 13 Geographic Information System 14 Focus on small data 15 Situational awareness platforms 16 Training plan 16 Selection of trainees 17 Goals of the training 17 Benefits to the trainees 18 Use of tools 18 Training structure 19 Activities 19 Time frame 19 Final testing and evaluation 19 Detailed budget 20 Explanation of training budget 20 Training budget development 20 Consideration of cost 21 References 23


Best practices for situational awareness

Situational awareness in modern EOC

Emergency operation center

Emergency Operation Center is a control department and central facility responsible for establishing the fundaments of emergencies and managing emergencies or disasters with an established strategy during the crisis. It also assures the continuity of procedures of a company. EOC has the responsibility of providing strategic direction and operational processes except for direct control of field assets and leaving tactical decisions to lower command (Ashish, Eguchi, & Huyck, 2008). Its primary function is to gather, summarize, and evaluate data and make decisions regarding protection of lives and property that can maintain a company’s continuous working. It has some applicable laws and spread those decisions to all of the concerned companies and people.

Situational awareness

The situation is the position according to conditions and circumstances. There can be a relative position or many of the conditions at a single point. Awareness is showing realization, knowledge, or information regarding events. Situational awareness is the knowledge and transmission of the surroundings with the importance of everything under observation. There can be constant evolution in the state of the environment, and it is required to be aware of all of these evolving changes (Coconea, Delprato, & Prior, 2014). The state of the information and mental model of a person’s situation is broadly discussed as situational awareness. It is significant in any dynamic environment to make appropriate decisions regarding the situation so better measurements can be taken to protect an individual or a company from major loss or any disaster.

It is information regarding the tactical situations so humans can have control over it. The perception of critical factors in the environment leads to situational awareness of an individual. It can be done through sensing, feeling the earth’s rumbling, and verbal and nonverbal communication with other individuals (Coconea, Delprato, & Prior, 2014). People who have better experience to exclude data have better information that can be used to analyze the situation more accurately; however, people with less experience cannot interpret the situation more effectively. Domain expertise is required in it so that control can be measured more effectively. The problem can run under control with no or less loss of property, economy, and individuals.

Situational awareness in EOC

Situational awareness is widely understood in every field so that situations can be under control, and there can be no harm delivered to anything. Its benefits are wholly understood during operations of different areas. It is equally important in the Emergency Operation Centers, so the rate of accidents can be reduced, and people can be protected from disasters also. Situational awareness is not a new concept. A status is perceived in it with all of the dynamics and associated elements of the surroundings (Levy, Jason, & Prizzia, 2019). Situational awareness is being used by EOC to establish a picture of current circumstances that we shared between ICS, MAC group, JIS participants, and ICS in the incident.

Things that have been perceived are also understood as it is relating to the goals of the EOC. These perceptions and comprehensions can be used to act in the future. It has many of the benefits to control post-accident EOC. In EOC, there is physical location, staff, and technology used to respond and recover from accidents or natural disasters (Johnson & David, 2011). At the start of the accident, the coming information to the EOC can be daunting. Achieving situational awareness is the foremost priority of accurately working EOC.

Implementation of situational awareness in EOC

The EOC’s first task is to get the highest and accurate level of situational awareness so the surroundings’ perception can be taken. EOC also needs resources in terms of technology to get these facts that are surrounding the incident:

· When the incident occurred, and where is the location?

· Which person informed about the incident, and are there reliable sources through which experiences can be conformed?

· What is the knowledge about the number of people that can be affected?

· Is there any report issued in the media?

· What is the status and availability of resources?

It is the necessary information that is required by the EOC to establish an accurate response. An appropriate amount of staff is required to access that type of situational analysis. Training sessions are also essential to provide to employees to take emergency calls and associated information. Training sessions are also required to communicate effectively to executive team members, government agencies, media, and clients. There are simple technologies that can support it, such as internet connection, phone list, and Television (Johnson & David, 2011). They can be established as an integrated communication system, software to collect associated parties and video conferencing data. To evaluate what is required to support EOC, it is necessary to consider the second step in the situational awareness model: comprehension. It is the step that is an association of the current information with goals; goals are determined. The company’s plans regarding accidents can vary, but there are some common in all companies. After receiving data regarding situational awareness, the main goal is to separate response activities from other operations. It will help the situation continue its other procedures, and the EOC can focus only on its central task. It also allows easy transition to normal operations once the crises are over. Moreover, the EOC’s primary goal is to provide help to victims and their families affected by the incident. The protection of brand reputation is also an important part that can be affected by accomplishing the other goals.

Accurate and relevant information about the event is highly required to follow the process of control of the incident. Effective and quick responses are taken according to data provided so that the least loss can occur. Each of the reactions varies from another, and there are regulatory guidelines provided to different companies so that incidents can be prevented. The main component of situational awareness is the understanding and anticipating the event and the guidelines provided to follow strictly (Brown & John, 2017). EOC selects the speed and level of the response. The response shows the level of care and support that can be delivered to victims and their families, but it can also affect staff, clients, and the general public. A correctly administered EOC can reduce the delay in responses and can neglect confusion. A reply among the people is developed, so people can also quickly respond to minimize the accident’s impacts when the event happened.

Elements of proactive situational awareness

Information is the primary currency that is mainly shared by the EOC. EOC is primarily an information processing mechanism that delivers support and coordination to operations and processing in different circumstances. Almost all of the standard emergency operation plans and mentioned operating principles describes that the operation center will develop and maintain situational awareness and reveal a common processing situation (Brown & John, 2017). Each of the dingle decisions that Emergency Operation Center is making depends on sufficient, precise, accurate and current situational awareness and a common operating process known as situational awareness. But many complicated issues can be a problem. First of all, many of the hardworking respondents of the EOC are working part-time in the operation center. The majority of the EOC employees are working during an emergency that does not occur frequently. Most of the time, the EOC staff members skip their training as it is competing directly with their daytime responsibilities (Levy, Jason, & Prizzia, 2019). There are less collaborative effective operations, so teaching about situational awareness is a critical factor.

It is a typical situation for EOC that it takes the information from every direction at an emergency. If the information requirements are not identified initially, missing essential and critical information, and less important information can be used in the controlling process. That is the reason because of which EOC needs to plan appropriately. There are five essential elements for proactive situational awareness that are discussed as:

· Requirements of information must be identified.

· Ways through which information will gather is determined.

· The expert who will evaluate the information is selected.

· The ways through which information will be processed and shared ate determined.

· Technology is chosen that will assist EOC to communicate and manage information accurately.

· Only some of the EOCs are currently doing this accurately. Proper training and situational awareness system are required by EOC to work correctly.


The “All Hazards” is an approach based on the idea that either the reasons for incidents and types can be different at a broad level and difficult to predict. The main functions required to respond are relatively similar from one event to the next (Kang, Park, & Jun-Teak, 2015). An organization must do certain things that are not dependent on the type of incident that occurs. These steps include:

· Evaluate the person who is in charge at each point during the accident.

· Initial notifications are required to conduct or must dispatch exceptional individuals or resources.

· Initial responses are required to find and evaluate lifesaving operations.

· An initial assessment of the situation is required to perform.

· A brief description is required to deliver to others that need engagement or notified.

· The status of the incident, its priorities, and objectives must be evaluated.

· Strategies and tactics that are required to accomplish the objectives of the incident ate also needed to evaluate.

· All of the resources and logistic requirements that can support the plan are also needed to determine.

· Communication of plan is required with those that are involved in the accomplishment of work. Proper communication with staff during shift change is also needed.

· Communication must be done with other shareholders, respondents, and the public.

· Objectives, strategies, plans, and resources must be identified to conduct progress in incidents (Luke & Jenny, 2019).

· Accomplish scaling down of the incident.

· Must get back to the normal to assure the resources that can be ready to reuse.

Instead of having an entirely changed and different approach for every incident, this idea allows the organization to keep improvising the functions with time and focusing on buildings. This whole idea allows some relaxation to the companies by focusing on transitions of plans and keeping them less anxious about planning everything. Depending on the type and complexity of the emergency building, response capabilities can be used in combinations. Specific incidence types, procedures, resources, guidance, and leadership can be added after establishing the foundation (Adini & Goldberg, 2012). All-Hazards Emergency Operations Plan is the main component of any organization that depicting the framework for response activities. This approach brings less complexity and makes the situation easy to handle for the organization. The foundation can have a preparedness program to manage or tackle the problem by planning, organizing, training, exercising, and equipping in a continuous improvement pattern.

Planning to tackle a matter with a catalog of minute details is one of the misperceptions that all-hazards planning things that are going wrong can be handled. For the tough goings, all-hazard planning mainly focuses on developing capacities. The all-hazards plans don’t make every threat to zero, but it makes sure that the foundations have training, leadership, and supplies that can address in a complete emergency (Coconea, Delprato, & Prior, 2014). Before and after the crisis, which steps should take are all managed by the idea of all-hazards plan management. It reduces the chances of incidence to happen and decrease the rate of injury to people. The organization takes more effective and scalable emergency procedures with the help of an all-hazard approach. In the case of emergency, this plan ensures the employees follow the standard protocol, and it takes what looks like monumental work and brings it down to a less complicated level.

Approach to emergency preparedness by all-hazard

Some sort of emergency plans should be present in every family, home, offices, businesses, organization that can be private or government. This plan reduces the risks of an accident to happens and safe the people from being injured and has few specific outlines and protocols that must be followed by the organization to become safe from property damage (Torn & Geene, 2019). The laws, procedures, and protocols can vary from organization to organization and can become problematic from a family hazard preparedness to the government agency. It minimizes the risks to bear any loss.

The main thing is to recognize the potential of emergencies that can happen at a time, and the plans to manage the crisis is simple. The concept behind the all-hazard approach to preparedness for an emergency is the central paradigm (Brown & John, 2017). When searching for the emergency preparedness for the situation, the Department of Homeland Security says that the threats that can cause property damage, injury to people, disruption in the business, or have an impact on the environment must be addressed and must be in consideration to keep the risk at a minimum by using all-hazard plan approach.

As similar to the ideas by the department of Homeland Security, the extensive guidance for emergencies to handle for government organizations is produced by the Federal Emergency Management that is known as Emergency Operation Plans or as EOP’s (Luke & Jenny, 2019). Companies can deduce EOP’s by taking the steps of the all-hazards approach:

· Jurisdiction can be threatened, and an all-hazard approach can serve as an effective response to any hazard (Luke & Jenny, 2019).

· Recovery activities and mitigation to the response is facilitated by integration

· Implementation of Federal Response plan during the catastrophic situation is facilitated by all-hazard approach with the coordination with Federal government

· A broader spectrum for planning to reduce risks by an all-hazard approach is required; it doesn’t implement all emergencies (Brown & John, 2017). There is no use for emergency management in Iowa to allocate resources for hurricane preparedness as an example. To ensure the limited agency funds, the resources are utilized effectively to prevent the overhead. An All-hazard plan should accompany. The best possible use of limited resources is using a risk-based approach to planning along with functional and prioritize contingency, which is the saying by

Equipment, tools, and data that is required for situational awareness

Professionals of emergency management at the emergency services of companies with its regional, local, national, and state partners utilized online and closed system tools so they can develop and maintain situational awareness of significant and potential accidents. They also use available resources that can be required to respond to those incidents properly. These tools are helpful to allow emergency management professionals to the development of standard operating pictures so they can process the operation collectively for the prevention of incidents (Türkistanlı & Kuleyin, 2019). Incidents that occurred can be responded appropriately to and recovered through these tools.

Planners of emergency management in the office of emergency services can use the tools according to authorization and access permission granted to access the closed system online tools so situational awareness can be conducted appropriately and maintained. While activation of Santa Clara County, Emergency Operation Center can be activated in the response to accidents. During the activation process, the staff that is assigned in the EOC may review data to access online situational awareness tools. Information can be correctly reviewed that is taken from these tools (Nohara, Beason, & Weber, 2011). Only professionals and experts are allowed to access specific situational awareness tools. The coordinator of EOC and its director is responsible for determining additional authorization regarding activation and use of these tools. Suppose added situational awareness tools are not identified that are required to use and for protection of lives, policies regarding it are required to be utilized so lives, property, and environment can be protected. In the emergency proclamation process, these tools are needed to evaluate. There is an emergent technology through which aerial images before the events and post-event situations can be taken so situational awareness can be done accurately. Access and use of these tools and data are limited for only the useful events regarding emergency situations and Management and can only be conducted by Emergency management officers.

Online situational awareness tools and data collection

Data is collected by using accurate situational awareness. This acquired data can be significantly used to increase the level of awareness so incidents can be dealt in better and more effective. There are six online situational awareness tools used by the Office of Emergency Services to increase situational awareness level. These tools are mentioned below:


It is the online situational tool used in the collection of Global Position System tracking information in real-time (Legg & Philip, 2016). It is the information that allows emergency management professionals to track the exact location of Fire Department apparatus in the field so that operational equipment situational awareness can be increased, and these resources can be utilized at the time of the incident and any kind of emergency.


It is the type of online situational awareness tool that is allowing EOC all over the operation to get information about their position status. Activation status of EOC and the response of incident with the recovery status is reviewed through it (Brynielsson, Joel, Franke, & Varga, 2016). This information is shared with other EOC professionals so resources can be accurately tracked, and quality can be processed through the operation location.


The California governor office of emergency services is collecting all of the information regarding the state from EOC.


COP is referred to as the California Common Operating Picture. It is the tool that is a map-based system that is assisting in the collection of information regarding the location of incidents and issues that a company or a place is facing in real-time (Brown & John, 2017). The information includes location of active traffic accidents, location of active emergency calls, and critical infrastructure location.


It is emergency operations that collect information on the major incidents that are occurring in the world that include wildfires and earthquakes (Ashish, Eguchi, & Huyck, 2008). The data is used to evaluate the situation, so emergency based experiences so lives, property, and environment can be protected.

Homeland Security Information Network

The tool is maintained and monitored by the federal Department of Homeland Security and gathers confidential and secured information and data related to incidents. Access to this tool is significantly restricted, as any leak in the report can lead to severe illegal issues.

Equipment and technique for situational awareness

Situational awareness refers to companies and EOC’s capability to detect, evaluate, and act on the event’s tool contexts. It is essential to make successful decisions regarding incidents that occurred. Relevant information and data are always required so Management can successively operate for the happened accidents. It is crucial to tackling each step of rescue and Management of casualty accurately. People who are part of the equation represent the most significant aspect of situational awareness, and technology and equipment can assist as a crucial component (Mittrick, Mark, & Richardson, 2018). With the right tools and equipment, an organization can have access to real-time data and improve their situational awareness level. There are five most significant technologies and tools that can be employed by an organization to increase their situational awareness, and through these, the company can start making accurate decisions:

The Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is relating to the networking of physical assets such as drones, cameras, sensors, and vehicles. These assets consider Ed as the IoT devices once they are designed and developed for communication and connection such as smart gates. Different Internet of Things devices can collect and transmit the related information on situational awareness such as location, status, temperature, and usage (Brynielsson, Joel, Franke, & Varga, 2016). The collected data can be accurately utilized as it can enable other systems ugh autonomous industrial machines. It can also be leveraged for human oversight and can positively assist in the decision making process. These devices, like connected security cameras, can also deliver information to law enforcement agents and emergency management professionals that can enable better Management of traffic and assist in predictive policing. A smart border wall is also composed of Internet of Things devices such as drones and ground sensors that can use used to patrol agents accurately to control illegal immigration effectively and big accidents can be protected.

Edge computing

Edge computing is considered as the faster and cost effective way through which data generated by the internet of things devices can be managed, analyzed and activated. Most of the time, raw data that is gathered by a sensor is sent back to a centralized network so it can be evaluated and stored. For time sensitive applications and some specific smart technologies such as self-driving cars, the gap can reveal a completely unacceptable level of latency that can even preclude the viability of the incident (Torn & Geene, 2019). However, for the public safety and emergency responses such as waiting for central processing can affect the mission.

Edge computing is a technique through which processing of data is occurred on devices at the tactical edge of the network. It can be said that data is processed out in the field as data can function with more effectiveness in locations that are limited or intermittent connectivity. It is the decentralized approach that reduces the time consumption that is required to process data in the clouds. This time consumption can assist in fast decision making process and situation can be under control in less time (Luke & Jenny, 2019). As it is the tool that is allowing processing of the raw data as it is established, managers get the data they require in real time. So teams in the emergency fields can make better decisions regarding the latest and more related data.

Geographic Information System

Capabilities of GIS mapping delivers spatial awareness regarding the location and it also offered most effective way to pack and visualize information. It is important because decision makers fan instantly divert themselves spatially without the assistance to cross-reference other information (Torn & Geene, 2019). GIS mapping is essentially providing a dynamic Nd update data of geography for crucial information. Digital mapping allows an aggregated and spatially related viewpoint of information on crucial threats, significant hazards and targeted thing or potentially essential resources.

It leads to spatial awareness. Teams and professionals can also track people, unit, or vehicles’ movement with the critical information of infrastructural assets such as fire hydrants of power lines. Packaging of details with this tool is an accurate way through which right and useful data are surfaced at the right time and to the right people. GIS allows the information regarding the incident to be stored, prioritized, or hidden and delivered in a conductive manner to deal with threats. It can be overviewed that GIS applies to industries as diverse as transport activities or event security. During dealing with hazardous situations, data through GIS is compulsory for safe planning and accurate movements. Mapping is also delivering data that can assist first responders in evaluating the level of emergency before they reach the incident place.

Focus on small data

Quite simply, small data means the right and accurate data. Complete information is sometimes not necessarily required, such as unnecessary alarms fan distract professionals from deciding on prioritized goals (Endsley, 2000). Moreover, high volume data and velocities need more complicated analytics and more complex and expensive hardware to establish crucial planning information. Many of the researchers first focused on big data, but they realize that massive data is not required but the right and accurate one is required to accomplish operations successively. Immediate and actionable data is required for situational awareness at the time of the incident that can be easily collected from small data.

Small data is allowing us to get meaning and required insights that are well organized and packaged. It is accessible more accurately, and it is understandable information for everyday tasks. However, big data can also be required in some cases for the scaling of human decision making. Still, it is possible and more confident that small data is assisting in reaching faster conclusions. It is a crucial factor for operational managers to focus on real-time data of situational awareness. There is already a shortage of time to process large data and overview extra information.

It is the concept of designing organizational operations so that the technique can deliver only the most required information that can allow decision makers to select and implement the best actions (Coconea, Delprato, & Prior, 2014). Operational managers are required to deliver the right data and not the big one with all types of unnecessary information. Only accurate data is necessary to access as other is a completely waste of time and can complicate decision-making.

Situational awareness platforms

Technology can assist the significant improvements in the decision-making process, and a fast decision can be made, but a situational awareness platform is always required. A lynchpin is the one that is allowing the integration and activation of real time data that us critical and significant information of the situation (Kang, Park, & Jun-Teak, 2015). A gun shoot detector or a drone video footage on an escaping person cannot lead to arrest or cannot save lives until these are delivered to officers in the position to act.

Situational awareness software is the basis on which the above technologies must function. The accurate and right software can convert big data of sources from heterogeneous assets to dimple operational data and provides real-time intelligence designed for quick human action. Solutions of situations awareness can assist companies to turn considerable information into a small and useful one. All of the data is converted into the correct data that delivers a grand opportunity to work immediately (Endsley, 2000). Purpose developed situational awareness software is converting large data into useful information accessed through IoT sensors, edge devices, GIS and complex data so meaning actions can be taken.

Training plan

A training plan is a document with all of the required details for the guidance of the planning and accurate delivery of instructions. Training can be done online or traditionally in a group of people that allows preparation (Levy, Jason, & Prizzia, 2019). Effective classes can only be delivered if a proper plan is there. Here training plan is developed for situational awareness, and a complete program is established. Such an interested group of people can be attracted, and a proper guideline to achievements of the training can be shown. It is the plan that can be delivered to many of the organizations so they can teach their workers about accurate situational awareness that can reduce chances of incident occurrence in the company.

Selection of trainees

Assessment of employees will be done before selecting employees that need a training program. Only those will be added that are less skillful in situational awareness.

Goals of the training

The goals of the training are an essential consideration in the whole training plan. These are the points that attract most of the employees and staff members to join the movement. Here are some goals of the practice of situational awareness:

· What is meant by situational awareness?

· What is the significance of situational awareness in the existing circumstances?

· What are the types of threats and emergencies that can occur in the organization?

· How employees can detect threats in the company by evaluating situation that can assist the employees in reduction and prevention of threats?

· What are various responsibilities of employees and managers to deal in the emergency circumstances?

· What are the different ways through which an environment can be analyzed in each perspective of situational awareness?

· What are some practical strategies through which individuals can reduce the level of threat?

· What are the different ways through which a detected threat can be reported to the authority? It also includes the activation of alarms in the company.

· What are the weapons that are required to install in the organization to face a threat or an incident, and what are the ways through which these weapons can reduce risk?

· What are the resources that are available in the company, and which resources are required that can assist in dealing with situational awareness?

· How to react to the incident and how individuals can evacuate safely from the situation. It also includes the location of escape routes.

· What are the ways through which individuals can work with high authorities involved in the emergency operations?

· What are post incident protocols in the organization?

· Evaluation of procedures regarding specific emergency conditions.

Benefits to the trainees

There are many tangible advantages that will be delivered to each of the competing trainees. Trainees will also earn new certifications that will qualify responsibility and active participation in the training process. Excellent job security can also be delivered to trainees that will successively accomplish the training phase and will understand all of the perspectives that are delivered in the training phase. They can also deal more accurately with the threats and incidents and will be significantly appreciated among all others.

Use of tools

As there are different tools that are used in situational awareness. Working of all of these techniques will be revealed to trainees until they get their hands over it. Each of the equipment specifications will be delivered to them with the way through which they are helpful in the situational awareness. These tools can ease access to data. The importance of data to trainees will also be revealed that can assist them in dealing with the incidents.

Training structure

One on one training will be performed for detailed orientation of tasks. It is important because some tasks can be better learned by observation or active participation in the substantial period of time. An experienced person will deliver demonstrations. People will be trained in small groups so best competent can be selected at the end of the training. It will also assist to increase skills in more accurate ways as problem solving activities can be better performed in small groups. A large group will be converted into small groups and final evaluation will be done from a large group. It will increase the level of completion and will make the final assessment more tough.


Several activities will be performed at the end of theoretical teaching. All of the theoretical work will be practically implemented with some constructed certain situations of threats and accidents so the level of absorbance of trainees can be accessed and each trainee can be delivery with reward according to level of their performance.

Time frame

In each day, two-hour training will be provided for several weeks. Total duration will be 2months in which complete training will be provided. At the end, assessments and evaluations of training program will be included in these 2 months.

Final testing and evaluation

Final testing at the end of the training program will be performed either through written tests or through interviews in which different questions regarding the learning phase and theoretical lessons will be asked to them. Practical evaluation can also be done that can assist in better evaluation of their practical skills. It will evaluate their learning and training phase regarding situational awareness and can also enable the organization to select trainees that successfully pass their training program. Extra benefits to these selected employees will be provided and they will also be rewarded according to the level of excellence they have shown in final evaluation.

Detailed budget

Right employee training is important create a positive difference in their skills. It can accomplish business goals and objectives of a company. Training is a costly process depending on the activities performed during the training session but it will deliver long term benefits to the company as it will improve guidance level of employees to deal with the threats that can protect a serious accident and loss in the organization.

Explanation of training budget

A good training needs investment in it and a training budget includes all of the comprehensive costs in it that are regarding the training and all of the activities that are performed to accomplish described goals of the training session. It is also required to provide material to trainees so they can learn accurately and all of these things cost. Training budge of a company is from the overall budget of a company and it should comprise only 1-5% of overall expenses on salary. It is the important expense that must be included by the company.

Training budget development

Training budget establishment needs to communicate with in charge of every potential department in the company. These things will assist in developing budget:

· What are the gaps in training?

· What are the areas of training in which most time is spend? As the training is related to situational awareness, most of the time spend is during the activity performance.

· Experts and professionals are included to deliver training and they charge high.

· Equipment and tools regarding situational awareness are also required to perform accurate training and it also costs extra to the organization.

· Activities that are performed for practice learning are important. Creation of situation for practical learning in the training duration is also an expense in the training program.

· Training program can be better with the appropriate tools which working is demonstrated properly through professionals. It is an improvement but an extra cost to the company.

· Managers in this way can calculate the cost that is too much because of tools, activities and professionals.

Consideration of cost

With a general idea of existing training expenditures and the ways through which training can be developed and changed for better training initiatives, a budget is developed in more detail. By overview of the cost that a company is paying in form of salary, overall budget that is available for training can be easily accessed. If a company is spending $600,000 on salaries to its employees in a year and keep the training cost 1-5% of the overall salaries, training budget can cost up to $6000 to $26,000 in a year that is a pretty wide range. If a company can easily afford a complete budget of $26,000 as a training budget, a budget that is bit less than it can be considered that can also provide financial wiggle room to the company. Here is a description about the money that will spend on different steps of training:

· Hiring of professionals to evaluate situational awareness in better way can cost up to $6,000 in a year as their fees and charges are high but this investment can be very much beneficial for the company in ways of threat restriction and incident reduction.

· Training to Healy hired employees will also cost to the company but it can assist them to have a complete guideline with all of the reactions they can give at the time of emergency.

· New and advanced system of training to all of the employees with equipment and tools cost extra to the company. Installation of situational awareness tools can cost up to $5000 to the company.

· Installation of different tools such as fire hydrants and exit programs will also cost high to the company.

· There is also upper Management who can pass the information without extra cost but that information will not be as exact as delivered by professionals.

· Activities that are performed in the training phase of employees also cost about $8000 to the company as a complete environment of threat and incidents is created to teach and to assess their skills.

While considering expenditures to be included in the training budget plan of a company, it is also significant to cover these details:

· Manual and other materials that are required during training. It will be dependent on the number of trainees and number of professionals that are delivering training.

· Travel and mileage expenditures will also be included in the total budget. The travel may include the distance towards the areas where activities and practices will be done.

· Expenses on instructional and outreach material will also be included in the final budget.

· Rent of offices or space that is occupied for the purpose of training will also be included in the final expenses to the company.

· Cost of equipment that will be provided to trainees. Group of trainees will be provided with the equipment so they can perform accurately.

· Internet and communication needs are also required for effective accomplishment of training and that expenses are also included in the final expense.


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